The Peaceful Phase


The Peaceful Phase was the phase during the French Revolution where the radical and conservative parties tried to come to an agreement with King Louis XVI over the state of the country. During the Peaceful Phase the National Assembly a.k.a. National Convention tried to make King Louis XVI sign certain constitutions that helped the citizens of France by giving them certain rights and privileges, and constitutions that helped divide the land up evenly so that the upper classes didn't own all of the land in the country when they make up such a low amount of the population. During this phase of the revolution there was relatively no violence hence the name The Peaceful Phase.

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Timeline of the French Revolution

The National Assembly



The National Assembly was formed on June 17, 1789, the National Assembly was formerly known as the Third Estate, which was part of the Three Estates. The Third Estate broke away
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The Tennis Court Oath
from the Three Estates when they were informed that they were allowed to have double their usual numbers at the Estates meeting but the decision was made as an Estate, not as each individual counting as 1. The Third Estate broke away from the other Two after hearing this and had a separate meeting. The Third Estate was made up of every other person who didn't belong to the First Estate or Second Estate, the Third Estate was represented by the Bourgeoisie. The National Assembly made a very important oath in the tennis courts near Versailles after they found out that their meeting place was locked up and guarded by soldiers. The National Assembly swore to never break up and meet no matter what, until a constitution was written up to guarantee rights to everyone.


The National Assemblies tried to get King Louis XVI to sign their constitutions many times but most attempts failed. Some successful constitutions and important rights signed were, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, The Civil Constitution of the Clergy and The Constitution of 1791 . These constitutions and laws were the start of how French citizens were starting to gain equality and rights in France in both living and voting aspects.

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Execution of Louis XVI

King Louis XVI



King Louis XVI was the king of France from 1754-1793 and ruled tyrannically for most of those years until 1792 when he was arrested and tried by the National Assembly which had renamed itself the National Convention. King Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and was executed by the guillotine in Paris in front of a cheering crowd. King Louis XVI was the last king to rule under absolute monarchy.

Louis XVI was married to Mary Antoinette of Austria and was disliked by many of his subjects for raising taxes, and squandering the money on jewelery and other extravagances for Mary Antoinette. Louis XVI had many tax advisers who gave Louis XVI bad advise about raising the taxes and on his financial state. Louis XVI was paranoid about being plotted against by the other nobles, so he forced everyone to live at the palace of Versailles where they were expected to entertain Louis XVI.

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Declaration of The Rights of Man

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen



On August 26, 1789, the National Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The declaration guaranteed freedom of thought, speech, and religion; it limited the king's power and earned everyone the title of "citizen". It soon became the gospel of the new French social order. The National Assembly passed this declaration to rally the country and also add support to themselves.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was made to guarantee the rights of all French citizens, so that all citizens had the rights to be equal to each other, and so that all citizens had the right to be protected, These were only a few of the rights that The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen gave to all the French citizens.

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National Assembly announcing The Constitution of 1791 was finished

Constitution Of 1791



The Constitution of 1791 was made by the National Assembly which wanted to establish the idea of equality of all. This constitution was also made to limit the power of the king which was currently ruled by absolute monarchy. This was one of the first constitutions that represented what the whole country thought and was one of the first attempts to replace absolute monarchy. This constitution was signed and accepted by Louis XVI on September 1791 after long negotiations with the National Assembly.

This Constitution states that all citizens are equal and that everyone has to pay the same taxes, all citizens are all punished with the same punishment as each other no matter what rank that person has, this constitution also says that the land is not divisible and is 1 whole not divided into parts. These laws contributed to the development of other laws that gave citizens rights and equality. This Constitution limited the monarchs power, so that the monarch would have to consort the National Assembly first before instituting a new tax or law, this ended the idea of The Divine Right of Kings.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

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Confiscation of church land and possessions



This constitution was one of the first constitutions that targeted the church's power. This constitution limited the power the church's had and limited the land that the church owned/possessed it also banned some monastic vows. This constitution was agreed to on July 12, 1790 by Louis XVI and was suggested by members of the church such as the high priest and revolutionary priests.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was made so that churches could not horde all the land and could not horde all the art. It confiscated many possessions and land from the church so that it was distributed to all the citizens who needed it. The constitution also banned churches from giving out church titles in exchange for money or possessions.


Bibliography



Books Used For Research:
Gilbert, Adrian. The French Revolution. New York : Thomson Learning, 1995.
Cranny, Michael. CrossRoads: A Meeting of Nations. Toronto: Prentice Hall, 1998.

Internet Sites Used For Research:
http://history.hanover.edu/texts/civilcon.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
http://www.hrcr.org/docs/frenchdec.html
http://sourcebook.fsc.edu/history/constitutionof1791.html


By: Tommy, Chris, Amy